References

All the references are at the back of the book – but they are all web-linked, so I thought a page on this site might make it easier for you to find them if you are interested, or if you just bought the audio version of the book.

 

Science chocolate spoof

http://io9.com/i-fooled-millions-into-thinking-chocolate-helps-weight-1707251800

UK Office for National Statistics (ONS) mortality statistics

http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/mortality-statistics–deaths-registered-in-england-and-wales–series-dr-/2010/stb-deaths-by-cause-2010.html

Bristol university – The Caerphilly study

http://www.bris.ac.uk/social-community-medicine/projects/caerphilly/

Alcohol advice

http://www.alcohollearningcentre.org.uk/Topics/Browse/BriefAdvice/?parent=4444&child=4896

British Liver Trust – Liver disease statistics

http://www.britishlivertrust.org.uk/

http://www.britishlivertrust.org.uk/liver-information/liver-conditions/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease/

The effects of taking a break from drinking

https://www.drinkaware.co.uk/make-a-change/how-to-cut-down/take-a-break-from-alcohol/

UK Office for National Statistics (ONS) – Smoking habits

http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/ghs/opinions-and-lifestyle-survey/adult-smoking-habits-in-great-britain–2013/stb-opn-smoking-2013.html

Guardian article – The risks of social smoking

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/feb/26/social-smokers-underestimate-risks-study

Journal of the American Medical Association – all cause mortality from obesity

http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1555137

Obesity & Life Expectancy – UK National Obesity Observatory

http://www.noo.org.uk/uploads/doc/vid_7199_Obesity_and_life_expectancy.pdf

Times article – The obese are in denial about their weight

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/health/news/article4267077.ece?shareToken=a2e50a18a64fb52d02e2c5291ee77f5a

Health & Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC) – Obesity data

http://www.hscic.gov.uk/catalogue/PUB13218/HSE2012-Ch10-Adult-BMI.pdf

Perceptions of obesity in the UK

http://easo.org/perception-survey/summary-of-all-countries/survey-uk/

Kings College London study – The low odds on recovering normal body weight once obese

http://www.kcl.ac.uk/newsevents/news/newsrecords/2015/July/Lowchanceofrecoveringnormalbodyweight.aspx

Canadian Medical Association Journal – study on resting heart rate vs mortality

http://www.cmaj.ca/content/early/2015/11/23/cmaj.150535.full.pdf

Health & Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC) – Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet

http://www.hscic.gov.uk/catalogue/PUB13648/Obes-phys-acti-diet-eng-2014-rep.pdf

International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity – study on the difference between self reported and actual levels of physical activity

http://www.ijbnpa.org/content/5/1/56

Bristol University – study of levels of physical inactivity

http://www.bristol.ac.uk/media-library/sites/cmpo/migrated/documents/wp311.pdf

ISRN Journal paper – health benefits of physical activity

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3501820/

Paper in The Lancet – activity benefits

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2811%2960749-6/abstract

ONS – Mortality in England & Wales – Average life span

http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/mortality-ageing/mortality-in-england-and-wales/average-life-span/rpt-average-life-span.html#tab-Trends-in-Average-Life-Span

Prof David Speigelhalter paper – why life expectancy data is misleading

http://understandinguncertainty.org/why-life-expectancy-misleading-summary-survival?utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=twitter

Kings Fund paper – life expectancy

http://www.kingsfund.org.uk/time-to-think-differently/trends/demography/life-expectancy#healthy

Times Article – why we’d rather live a healthy life than a long one

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/health/news/article4443070.ece

HSCIC – Alcohol statistics

http://www.hscic.gov.uk/catalogue/PUB10932

Christopher Snowden blog – “The middle class drink epidemic”

http://velvetgloveironfist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/07/the-middle-class-drink-epidemic.html

Guardian article – Alcohol consumption in England is underestimated

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/may/22/alcohol-consumption-in-england-is-underestimated-says-study

The Times – Dr Mark Porter article on numbers of heavy/frequent drinkers

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/health/dr-mark-porter/article4270324.ece?shareToken=a5b0894a393173f2236cb74ce423d5f5

German study on excess alcohol-related mortality

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23072405

US Centre for Disease control (CDC) – study on tobacco related mortality

http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/tobacco_related_mortality/

Australian National University study – tobacco related mortality

http://www.anu.edu.au/news/all-news/almost-two-million-smokers-will-die-from-their-habit

NCBI paper – Smoking & Obesity occurence

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1488756/

Sport England – Active People Survey

http://archive.sportengland.org/research/active_people_survey/active_people_survey_7.aspx

Harvard Study – how much exercise is enough

http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2012/11/how-much-exercise-is-enough/

Journal article – does physical activity increase life expectancy

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jar/2012/243958/

Prof David Speigelhalter – what is your effective age

http://understandinguncertainty.org/what-your-effective-age?utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=twitter&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+UnderstandingUncertainty+%28Understanding+Uncertainty%29

Kings College London – the potential harm reduction from e-cigarettes

http://www.kcl.ac.uk/ioppn/news/records/2015/August/ecigarettes.aspx

NY Times article – The use of e-cigarettes rises sharply amongst teenagers

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/17/health/use-of-e-cigarettes-rises-sharply-among-teenagers-report-says.html?smid=tw-share&_r=0

New England Journal of Medicine – a risk aversion method to quit smoking

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1414293#t=article

The Lancet journal – the benefits of stopping smoking

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2812%2961720-6/abstract

The benefits of smoking cessation for longevity

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1447499/

Daily Mail article – why it might take seven attempts to stop smoking

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1350351/Trying-quit-smoking-It-years-seven-attempts.html

Harvard article – whole grains linked to lower mortality risk

http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/more-whole-grains-linked-with-lower-mortality-risk/

Maastricht University – daily nut consumption linked to lower levels of mortality

http://www.maastrichtuniversity.nl/web/Main/Sitewide/News1/DailyConsumptionOfNutsAndPeanutsLinkedToLowerMortalityRates1.htm

Guardian article – brisk daily walking reduces ageing and increases life span

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/aug/30/brisk-daily-walks-reduce-ageing-increase-life-span-research

The effects of alcohol on nutrition

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10422091

American Heart Association article – moderate coffee drinking may be linked to reduced levels of heart disease

http://newsroom.heart.org/news/moderate-coffee-drinking-may-be-linked-to-reduced-risk-of-death?preview=7525

University College London – article – busting the 21 day habit forming myth

https://blogs.ucl.ac.uk/hbrc/2012/06/29/busting-the-21-days-habit-formation-myth/

Times article – Matt Ridley – cholesterol is now OK

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/opinion/columnists/article4449967.ece

Times article – fruit snacking is rotten for your teeth

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/health/news/article4435056.ece?shareToken=1d56f46343149ef8ab6d9707e2fb623a

NY Times article – simple rules for healthy eating

http://mobile.nytimes.com/2015/04/21/upshot/simple-habits-for-healthy-eating.html?referrer

American College of Cardiology – How healthy obesity declines over time

http://www.acc.org/about-acc/press-releases/2015/01/13/11/50/for-most-healthy-obese-health-declines-over-time

Journal of the American Medical Association – a call for the end to diet debates

http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1730520

Guardian article – low-fat diets don’t work, low-carb do

http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2015/oct/30/low-fat-diets-slammed-major-new-report?CMP=edit_2221

web site for Dr Zoe Harcombe

http://www.zoeharcombe.com

Duke university – study of low-carb diet vs low-cal diet

http://corporate.dukemedicine.org/news_and_publications/news_office/news/7598

collection of 23 studies into low-carb diets

http://authoritynutrition.com/23-studies-on-low-carb-and-low-fat-diets/

Cell – the beneficial effects of time-restricted feeding

http://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/abstract/S1550-4131(12)00189-1

NY Times article – why diet advice that ignores hunger can’t work

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/30/opinion/diet-advice-that-ignores-hunger.html?smprod=nytcore-ipad&smid=nytcore-ipad-share

Guardian article – Alcohol Moderation Management

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/mar/16/the-next-aa-moderation-management-abstinence-alcohol-isnt-the-answer?CMP=share_btn_link

Mortality in relation to alcohol consumption – Richard Doll et al study

http://www.bmj.com/content/309/6959/911

Richard Snowden blog on misuse of alcohol study results

http://velvetgloveironfist.blogspot.co.uk/2015/04/tim-stockwell-merchant-of-doubt.html

Prof David Speigelhalter – misleading conclusions from the latest alcohol protection study

http://understandinguncertainty.org/misleading-conclusions-alcohol-protection-study

Journal of the American Medical Association – meta-study of alcohol and all-cause mortality

http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=769554

ISBRA – Beneficial effects of moderate alcohol consumption

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01286.x/abstract

Actual alcohol sales compared to survey data in US states

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20626370

Christopher Snowden blog – under-reporting and true levels of risk

http://velvetgloveironfist.blogspot.co.uk/2016/01/a-crucial-point-about-alcohol-research.html

Tufts university – longer, faster walking associated with later-life health benefits

http://now.tufts.edu/news-releases/walking-faster-or-longer-linked-significant-cardiovascular-benefits-older-adults

Harvard university – how much exercise is enough

http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2012/11/how-much-exercise-is-enough/

Norwegian study – Increasing physical activity as important as quitting smoking

http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/49/11/743

British Medical Journal – Socio-economic differences in beliefs about healthy lifestyles

http://jech.bmj.com/content/57/6/440.full

National Obesity Observatory – relationship between obesity and socio-economic status

http://www.noo.org.uk/uploads/doc/vid_16966_AdultSocioeconSep2012.pdf

HSCIC – affluent adult drinking levels

http://www.hscic.gov.uk/article/6878/One-in-four-affluent-adults-drink-above-lower-risk-levels

York University – Mortality, lifestyle and socio-economic status

https://www.york.ac.uk/media/economics/documents/herc/wp/05_02.pdf

Times article on healthy vs long life

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/health/news/article4443070.ece

Kings College London – how exercise slows down the ageing process

http://www.kcl.ac.uk/newsevents/news/newsrecords/2015/January/Exercise-allows-you-to-age-optimally.aspx

Brigham & Womens hospital – The factors influencing exceptional longevity in men

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18268169

Duke University – A potential cause for Alzheimers

https://today.duke.edu/2015/04/arginine

Guardian article – keys to a mentally alert old age

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/mar/12/dancing-sudoku-fish-and-fruit-the-keys-to-a-mentally-alert-old-age

NHS UK – diet, exercise and brain training may help keep the mind sharp

http://www.nhs.uk/news/2015/03March/Pages/Diet-exercise-and-brain-training-may-help-keep-the-mind-sharp.aspx

Alzheimers Society – how online brain training improves memory

https://www.alzheimers.org.uk/site/scripts/news_article.php?newsID=2494

JAMA – the benefits of physical activity in older women

http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=199487

The Lancet article – BMI and the risk of dementia

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/landia/article/PIIS2213-8587(15)00033-9/abstract

Diabetes.co.uk – is type-3 diabetes a cause of alzheimers?

http://www.diabetes.co.uk/type3-diabetes.html

ONS – historic and projected cohort life expectancy data

http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/lifetables/historic-and-projected-data-from-the-period-and-cohort-life-tables/2012-based/index.html

Techcrunch article – biometric tattoos

http://techcrunch.com/2015/11/23/chaotic-moon-explores-biometric-tattoos-for-medicine-and-the-military/

Times article – blood test can predict cancer

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/uk/article4414041.ece?shareToken=a804d5b8410a92bdf6898c66c3a51ea8

US research paper – Genomics and prostate cancer

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26000489

Healthline article – robotic surgery revolution

http://www.healthline.com/health-news/is-da-vinci-robotic-surgery-revolution-or-ripoff-021215#4

Guardian article – a paradigm shift in the treatment of lung cancer

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/jun/01/paradigm-shift-hailed-in-treatment-of-lung-cancer?CMP=twt_gu

Science Daily article – nanotechnology used to regenerate tissues, organs

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/05/070503205701.htm

Guardian article – nanotechnology and stem cell research

http://www.theguardian.com/nanotechnology-world/nanotechnology-shaping-stem-cell-research

Royal Society of Chemistry – a revolution in biomaterials

http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/Issues/2010/July/BiomaterialsRevolution.asp

Guardian article – the elixir of youth

http://www.theguardian.com/science/shortcuts/2015/mar/18/of-mice-and-old-men-is-the-elixir-of-youth-finally-coming-of-age

ONS dynamc model – your chances of living to 100

http://visual.ons.gov.uk/what-are-your-chances-of-living-to-100/